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Platinum RTDs use a linearization curve known as the Callendar-Van Dusen equation to measure the temperature of RTDs. The equation is as follows: Temperatures below 0 °C: R[T] = R[0][1 + A × T + B × T^2 ...

Depending on your application, you may use several different kinds of sensors. Some commonly used ones are strain gages, thermocouples, thermistors, angular encoders, linear encoders, bridge-based sensors, ...

In a typical control application, there are one or more process variables that you want to control, such as temperature. Sensors measure the process variable in the dynamic system and provide the data ...

The resolution and device range of a measurement device determine the smallest detectable change, called the code width, in the input signal. The smaller your code width, the more accurate your measurements ...

Signal connections vary depending on your device, connector block, and signal conditioning module. The DAQ Assistant contains connection diagrams that show terminal connections for all common analog input ...

The type of input signal source (grounded or floating) and the configuration of the measurement system (differential, single-ended, pseudodifferential) determine how you connect signals to measurement ...

Signal connections vary depending on your device, connector block, and signal conditioning module. The following figure shows how to make analog output connections for a typical NI device. For terminals ...

The number of digital lines varies from device to device. The following figure shows signal connections for three typical DIO applications. The figure shows PO <0..3> configured for digital input and PO ...

Counters measure and generate digital signals. Counters are used commonly to count edges and for time measurements, such as measuring digital frequency or the period of a signal. The signal connections ...

The following figure depicts the measurement system overview, showing the path of real-world physical phenomena to your measurement application. Sensors and transducers detect physical phenomena. Signal ...

Device range refers to the minimum and maximum analog signal levels that the ADC can digitize. Many measurement devices can select from several ranges by changing from unipolar mode to bipolar mode or ...

A differential measurement system has neither of its inputs tied to a fixed reference, such as earth or building ground. A differential measurement system is similar to a floating signal source in that ...

Test engineers can choose from a number of different digital I/O instruments with a range of features for communication and test applications. Beyond the basic capabilities of driving a digital pattern ...

A digital signal has two discrete levels—a high and a low level. One example of a digital signal is a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) compatible signal. A TTL-compatible signal has the following characteristics: ...

The duty cycle is a characteristic of a pulse. Use the following equation to calculate the duty cycle of a pulse whose high time and low time are unequal: Duty Cycle = High Time/Pulse Period where Pulse ...

Proximity probes are sensors that measure relative proximity. They use changes in voltage to measure shaft surfaces that rotate or reciprocate. Because they are non-contacting transducers, proximity probes ...

There are two common types of encoders used for measuring position: two-pulse encoders and quadrature encoders.

Event response applications require a response to a stimulus in a determined amount of time. An example is monitoring the temperature of an engine. When the temperature rises too high, the engine is slowed ...

Filtering is one of the most commonly used signal processing techniques. Signal conditioning systems can filter unwanted signals or noise from the signal you are measuring. Use a noise filter on low-rate, ...

In a floating source, the voltage signal is not connected to any absolute reference or any common ground, such as earth or building ground as shown in the following figure. Floating signal sources are ...

Piezoelectric force sensors are typically used to measure dynamic force events. Such sensors are divided into two main categories: load cells and impact hammers. Piezoelectric load cells measure the amount ...

The full-bridge type I configuration only measures the bending strain. The following figure shows how to position strain gage resistors in a bending configuration for the full-bridge type I. Full-bridge ...

The full-bridge type II configuration only measures bending strain. The following figure shows how to position strain gage elements in a bending configuration for the full-bridge type II. Full-bridge type ...

The following figure shows how to position strain gage resistors in an axial configuration for the full-bridge type III. The full-bridge type III configuration only measures the axial configuration. Full-bridge ...

A grounded source is one in which the voltage signals are referenced to a system ground, such as earth or building ground, as shown in the following figure. Because such sources use the system ground, ...

The following figure shows how to position strain gage resistors in an axial configuration for the half-bridge type I. The following figure shows how to position strain gage resistors in a bending configuration ...

The half-bridge type II configuration only measures bending strain. The following figure shows how to position strain gage resistors in a bending configuration for the half-bridge type II. Half-bridge ...

Integrated Electronics Piezoelectric (IEPE) is a type of transducer that is packaged with a built-in amplifier. Because the charge produced by some sensors is very small, the electrical signal produced ...

Signals often can exceed the limits that a measurement device can handle. Trying to measure a signal that is too large for the measurement device can damage the device or you. To keep you and your device ...

For control applications, the amount of time that the loop cycle time varies from the desired time is called jitter. The maximum amount that a loop cycle time varies from the desired loop cycle time is ...

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