The LabVIEW DSC Module provides a set of powerful tools to facilitate security for LabVIEW project libraries, shared variables, and front panel objects located on local and network systems. Security functionality is divided into two categories: user management and authentication, and resource permissions. User management and authentication is provided by the Domain Account Manager, so the developer can store all user information in a centralized location. With this architecture, distributed systems can access a single location for user information instead of storing the accounts on each computer. The Domain Account Manager also manages user authentication so distributed or networked systems do not need to implement the functionality themselves. The user information provided by the Domain Account Manager is used by LabVIEW project libraries, shared variables, and front panel objects to assign permissions.
In LabVIEW 7.x and earlier, the LabVIEW DSC Module uses a user account database on each computer to authenticate users and provide security for different resources. Having a single user account database creates a problem because the authenticating computer only has knowledge of users on the computer where the database resides. The authenticating computer is not aware of users on other computers. Furthermore, attaching a user account database to each computer might not be feasible for embedded or real-time targets because of their limited computing power.
The LabVIEW 8 DSC Module introduces the Domain Account Manager, which provides a more flexible, mature, and robust security solution than earlier versions of the LabVIEW DSC Module. The Domain Account Manager serves as a central repository for managing local and remote user authentication and account management. You use the Domain Account Manager to create users and user groups, each with different privilege levels. Users can be added to any number of groups. This arrangement simplifies the process of assigning permissions to local and networked LabVIEW resources. Instead of having a single computer implement user authentication and store user or group information, individual computers communicate with a Domain Account Manager located on a remote computer. This remote computer then determines which users are trying to access a resource and to which group each user belongs.
To launch the Domain Account Manager, select Tools»Security»Domain Account Manager from the pull-down menu in the project manager. In the Domain Account Manager, shown in Figure 1, right-click the My Computer icon and select New Local Domain from the shortcut menu. If a local domain already exists on the computer, you will not be able to create another one without first destroying the existing local domain. From the General tab, enter a domain name and press Ok. You will be prompted to create an Administrator password. The Administrator is the default user that can add or remove users and user groups, change user permissions, modify user passwords, and so on. This functionality is limited to the Administrator and any users in the Administrators group. The other default groups include Operators and Guests.
The Domain Account Manager has many security features, such as encryption, that increase the security of the computer on which it is deployed. The Domain Account Manager uses a challenge and response protocol to transmit passwords over the network. Because no clear text password is transmitted through the network, malicious eavesdropping techniques do not reveal the user’s password. The Domain Account Manager also uses a one-way hash function to store passwords. Using this type of storage, applications can validate passwords with the Domain Account Manager, but these applications cannot determine the actual password.
To increase security, you can control access to the Domain Account Manager by assigning permissions to both individual computers and subnets. By denying access to the Domain Account Manager you are effectively denying access to any of the resources that use the Domain for user authentication. If a computer or subnet cannot access the Domain Account Manager, the requested resource cannot determine the necessary permissions.
You can use both individual computer names and IP addresses to control access to the Domain Account Manager. You can also use the "*" wildcard to control access by a range of computers or IP addresses. For example, granting access by "*.ni.com" specifies that all computers whose name ends with "ni.com" can access the Domain Account Manager. Conversely, denying access by "10.0.0.*" specifies that no computer on the 10.0.0 subnet can access the Domain Account Manager. Figure 2 shows these settings of the Domain Properties window. You access this window by launching the Domain Account Manager, selecting Edit»Properties from the pull-down menu, and clicking the Access Control tab.
Project libraries and shared variables are two types of resources that use the security features provided by the LabVIEW DSC Module. You can use permission levels to control read/write access to both of these resource types. The three permission levels are Grant, Deny, and Undefined. Table 1 describes these permission levels.
Permissions are assigned hierarchically. The highest level of permissions is that which is defined at the project library level. By assigning permission to a library, you are assigning permissions to all project libraries and shared variables contained in that project library. The undefined permission can be overridden at the same hierarchical level or at a higher one.
Once users and user groups have been defined in the Domain Account Manager, this user information can be used to determine the read/write permissions for different resources. To set user and group permissions for a project library, right-click the project library and select Properties from the shortcut menu. Then select DSC Settings: Data Access from the Category list. Figure 3 shows the Data Access category of the Properties window for a project library. Notice the user has only read access to the project library.
Shared variables use the Domain Account Manager user information and authentication functionality to set permissions much in the same way that the project libraries do. However, because shared variables reside inside a project library, there might be discrepancies between the permissions assigned to the project library and permissions assigned to the shared variable. In this situation, the most restrictive permission is always enforced.
To assign permissions for a shared variable, right-click the variable and select Properties from the shortcut menu. Then select Security from the Category list. Figure 4 shows the shared variable properties window providing the user read access and denying write access.
The LabVIEW DSC Module also uses the Domain Account Manager to assign permission levels to controls and indicators on the front panel. You can assign the following four permission levels to front panel objects.
You can use the following two procedures to assign permissions to front panel objects.
Using the Front Panel Security dialog box to assign object permissions is different from changing the object state using the Properties menu. Using the properties of that object changes the security of the object based on the user that is logged in to the front panel. Conversely, using the Front Panel Security dialog box keeps the security at the same level no matter which user is logged in. Also, permissions set by front panel security override the state defined for a front panel object by its properties. Therefore, no matter what the state of the object is set to, its behavior will be controlled by front panel security.
The LabVIEW DSC Module provides a set of tools to facilitate the implementation of security for local or network resources such as LabVIEW project libraries, shared variables, and front panel objects. The security architecture of the DSC Module separates user management and authentication from resource permissions. User management and authentication is provided by the Domain Account Manager while the permissions assigned for users to access a resource are defined by the resource itself. The three resources that take advantage of the security functionality of the LabVIEW DSC Module assign permissions in different ways. Project libraries can be used as containers to assign permissions to multiple shared variables or other project libraries contained in that project library. Although shared variables inherit permissions from the project library where they reside, shared variables can assign individual permissions as well. Front panel objects can also assign permission levels based on the user or group.