1. Amplitude-Shift Keying, Frequency-Shift Keying, and Phase-Shift Keying
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK), frequency-shift keying (FSK), and phase-shift keying (PSK) are digital modulation schemes that assign bit levels to changing values.
2. What is I and Q (I/Q) Data?
This tutorial introduces the basic representations of signals including polar and Cartesian as well as the concept of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signaling for signal modulation.
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3. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
QAM modulation involves sending digital information by periodically adjusting the phase and amplitude of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave.
4. Related Products
NI PXIe-5663 6.6 GHz RF Vector Signal Analyzer
The National Instruments PXIe-5663 is a modular 6.6 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 50 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test.
NI PXIe-5673 6.6 GHz RF Vector Signal Generator
The National Instruments PXIe-5673 is a 4-slot 6.6 GHz RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 85 MHz to 6.6 GHz, 100 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory.
NI PXI-5660 2.7 GHz RF Vector Signal Analyzer
The National Instruments PXI-5660 is a modular 2.7 GHz RF vector signal analyzer with 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth optimized for automated test.
NI PXI-5671 2.7 GHz RF Vector Signal Generator
The National Instruments PXI-5671 module is a 3-slot RF vector signal generator that delivers signal generation from 250 kHz to 2.7 GHz, 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth, and up to 512 MB of memory.
NI PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and Microwave Signal Generator
The National Instruments PXI-5652 6.6 GHz RF and microwave signal generator is continuous-wave with modulation capability. It is excellent for setting up stimulus response applications with RF signal analyzers.
NI RF Switches
The National Instruments RF switch modules are ideal for expanding the channel count or increasing the flexibility of systems with signal bandwidths greater than 10 MHz to bandwidths as high as 26.5 GHz.
National Instruments LabVIEW is an industry-leading graphical software tool for designing test, measurement, and automation systems.
For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Measurement Fundamentals Main page, or for more RF tutorials, refer to the NI RF Fundamentals main subpage. For more information about National Instruments RF products, visit www.ni.com/rf.
6. Looking for more RF Basics?
Engineers who are new to RF or looking for a a refresher course can attend a 3-Day National Instruments RF Fundamentals Training Course to explore traditional measurements, learn about digital and analog modulation, examine modern system-level tests such as BER, MER, and EVM, and more.
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