Table Of Contents

MT Detect QAM (G Dataflow)

Version:
    Last Modified: February 7, 2018

    Demodulates a quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM)-modulated complex baseband waveform and returns the demodulated bit stream. This node attempts to remove carrier and phase offset by locking to the carrier signal.

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    Note  

    MT Detect QAM returns only the demodulated bit stream. Use MT Demodulate QAM to acquire the time-aligned oversampled complex waveform, the demodulated bit stream, and the results of offset and drift measurements.

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    Note  

    This node assumes that the sample rate of the input complex waveform is exactly samples per symbol × the symbol rate. If this relationship does not apply to your application, use MT Resample (Complex Cluster) to resample the waveform to the desired sample rate.

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    input complex waveform

    The modulated complex baseband waveform data.

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    t0

    Trigger (start) time of the Y array.

    Default: 0.0

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    dt

    Time interval between data points in the Y array.

    Default: 1.0

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    Y

    The complex-valued signal-only baseband modulated waveform. The real and imaginary parts of this complex data array correspond to the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) data, respectively.

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    QAM system parameters

    Parameter values defining the QAM system. Wire the QAM system parameters cluster of MT Generate QAM System Parameters (M) or MT Generate QAM System Parameters (map) to this cluster. Do not alter the values.

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    samples per symbol

    An even number of samples dedicated to each symbol. Multiply this value by the symbol rate to determine the sample rate.

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    Note  

    The demodulation and detector nodes use timing recovery, which is optimized for four or more samples per symbol.

    Default: 16

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    symbol map

    An ordered array that maps each symbol to its desired coordinates in the complex plane. The number of QAM states in the array is 2 N , where N is the number of bits per symbol. The vector length for the symbols farthest from the origin is 1.

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    synchronization parameters

    Parameter values describing the synchronization sequence and the range of bits over which to search for this sequence. Wire the QAM synchronization parameters cluster returned by MT Generate QAM Synchronization Parameters (bit array) or MT Generate QAM Synchronization Parameters (number array) to this cluster.

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    Note  

    If the synchronization parameters cluster is not wired, the demodulator does not attempt to synchronize, and the constellation of the demodulated waveform has a 90° carrier phase ambiguity.

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    expected sync location

    The expected location of the first symbol of the sync sequence.

    This value is an index to the input complex waveform. A value of -1 searches the entire input complex waveform and ignores the sync location uncertainty parameter.

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    sync sequence

    The mapped symbol pattern used to synchronize the bit stream. To prevent false synchronization, select this pattern such that there is a low probability of accidental correlation to nonsynchronized parts of the data stream. If this parameter is left empty, the signal is still demodulated, but there is a phase ambiguity in the recovered symbols.

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    sync location uncertainty

    Number of symbols before or after the expected sync location where the first symbol of the sync sequence may be located. The node ignores this parameter if the expected sync location parameter is set to -1.

    Default: 10

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    sync indent

    Distance that the sync sequence is indented into the information block.

    The distance is the number of demodulated symbols preceding the sync sequence. For example, a value of 10 indicates that the output bit stream consists of 10 data symbols, followed by the sync sequence, followed by the remaining data symbols.

    Default: 0

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    error in

    Error conditions that occur before this node runs.

    The node responds to this input according to standard error behavior.

    Standard Error Behavior

    Many nodes provide an error in input and an error out output so that the node can respond to and communicate errors that occur while code is running. The value of error in specifies whether an error occurred before the node runs. Most nodes respond to values of error in in a standard, predictable way.

    error in does not contain an error error in contains an error
    If no error occurred before the node runs, the node begins execution normally.

    If no error occurs while the node runs, it returns no error. If an error does occur while the node runs, it returns that error information as error out.

    If an error occurred before the node runs, the node does not execute. Instead, it returns the error in value as error out.

    Default: No error

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    matched filter coefficients

    An ordered array containing the desired matched filter coefficients. Wire the matched filter coefficients parameter of MT Generate Filter Coefficients to this parameter. When generating the filter coefficients, ensure that the value of the matched samples per symbol parameter of MT Generate Filter Coefficients is equal to the value of the samples per symbol element of the QAM system parameters cluster passed to this node.

    Dependency on reset? Input

    When reset? is set to TRUE, there is a transient response of half the filter length at the start of the demodulated signal, and the returned data is shortened by approximately half the filter length. When reset? is set to FALSE, the node uses data from the previous iteration to eliminate the transient.

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    Tip  

    When reset? is set to TRUE, the number of trailing symbols that are carried over to the next iteration during demodulation is upper bounded by [L + 4(13 + K)]/K, where L is the matched filter length in taps and K is the number of samples per symbol. For typical values of L = 25 (4 samples per symbol, filter length of 6 symbols) and K = 4, this value equals 23.25 symbols. Therefore when reset? is set to TRUE, a total of 1,024 QAM symbols must be passed to the demodulator to obtain at least 1,000 symbols at the output. This formula does not account for truncation due to any specified synchronization parameters.

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    reset?

    A Boolean that determines whether the node continues demodulating using the previous iteration states.

    TRUE Restarts the demodulator. The node resets on the first call and when reset? is set to TRUE.
    FALSE Continues demodulating using the previous iteration states. The input complex waveform is contiguous with the input complex waveform from the previous iteration of this node.

    Default: TRUE

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    flush buffers?

    A Boolean that determines whether to flush samples from the input complex waveform that are delayed due to the FIR filters used in the demodulation algorithm. Set this parameter to TRUE during single-shot operations and during the last iteration of continuous operations.

    TRUE Destroys the internal states of the algorithms such that you cannot perform continuous processing on the signal during subsequent iterations. If flush buffers? is set to TRUE, you must set reset? to TRUE on the subsequent iteration.
    FALSE Stores the internal states of the algorithms so that you can perform continuous processing on the signal during subsequent iterations.

    Default: FALSE

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    output bit stream

    The demodulated information bit stream.

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    Note  

    For systems with more than 1 bit per symbol the symbols are converted to bits in least significant bit (LSB) first order. For example, if the detected symbols are 2,1,... the generated bits are 0,1,1,0...

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    sync found index

    Symbol index within the input complex waveform where the peak correlation to the sync sequence was found. If no sync sequence is specified in the synchronization parameters cluster, the sync found index parameter returns the offset from the start of the input complex waveform to the first complete symbol.

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    error out

    Error information.

    The node produces this output according to standard error behavior.

    Standard Error Behavior

    Many nodes provide an error in input and an error out output so that the node can respond to and communicate errors that occur while code is running. The value of error in specifies whether an error occurred before the node runs. Most nodes respond to values of error in in a standard, predictable way.

    error in does not contain an error error in contains an error
    If no error occurred before the node runs, the node begins execution normally.

    If no error occurs while the node runs, it returns no error. If an error does occur while the node runs, it returns that error information as error out.

    If an error occurred before the node runs, the node does not execute. Instead, it returns the error in value as error out.

    Successful Locking

    Successful locking depends on many factors, including signal quality, modulation type, filtering parameters, and acquisition size. Locking also requires a fairly uniform distribution of symbols in the signal. The demodulator lock rate increases (and failures decrease) as the number of symbols demodulated increases. In general, you can expect to achieve a better than 95% lock when demodulating 10 × M number of symbols, where M is 2 bits per symbol .

    Where This Node Can Run:

    Desktop OS: Windows

    FPGA: Not supported

    Web Server: Not supported in VIs that run in a web application


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